Introduction

Tuesday 12th of December 2017 06:34:03 PM

In part 3 of the ongoing series about MySQL's stored procedures, we look at handlers and cursors in particular - both logical constructs that allow added functionality. Handlers allow you to run statements if a certain condition is met, while cursors, although only nominally supported in MySQL 5, allow looping through a resultset, processing it row by row.


Handlers and error handling


With stored procedures allowing the DBMS to grapple with concepts that beforehand were only dealt with in the murkier programming world, there is a clear need for a more elegant way of handling errors and exceptions. Enter the handler. There are two types of handler supported by MySQL - EXIT handlers that immediately exit the current BEGIN/END block, and CONTINUE handlers that allow processing to continue after the handler actions have been performed (the UNDO handler that may be familiar to users of other DBMS' is not yet supported). Below is an example. Remember that we are still using the | character as a delimiter, as outlined in part 1 of the series.



mysql>
CREATE procedure sp3()
BEGIN
DECLARE 'unknown column' CONDITION FOR SQLSTATE '42S22';
DECLARE EXIT HANDLER FOR 'unknown column'
SELECT 'error error whoop whoop';
SELECT aha;
SELECT 'continuing';
END;|
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
mysql> CALL sp3()\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
error error whoop whoop: error error whoop whoop
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

So, what happened here? We declared a condition, called 'unknown column'. It is a condition that occurs when SQLSTATE 42S22 is reached, which is when there is an unknown column. You can find a full list of error codes and messages on the MySQL site. Next, we declare an exit handler for the 'unknown column' condition, declared above. The handler simply displays the message error error whoop whoop. The actual body of the procedure consists of two statements, SELECT aha, which is designed to trigger SQLSTATE 42S22, and SELECT 'continuing', which is never actually executed as, being an exit handler, the procedure is immediately exited when the condition is met. So, when we call sp3(), the SELECT statement triggers the condition, and the message is displayed. Let's change this to use a CONTINUE handler, and see the difference.

mysql>
CREATE procedure sp4()
BEGIN
DECLARE 'unknown column' CONDITION FOR SQLSTATE '42S22';
DECLARE CONTINUE HANDLER FOR 'unknown column'
SELECT 'error error whoop whoop';
SELECT aha;
SELECT 'continuing';
END;
mysql> CALL sp4()\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
error error whoop whoop: error error whoop whoop
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
*************************** 1. row ***************************
continuing: continuing
1 row in set (0.06 sec)

As expected, the procedure continues executing after the error, and this time the SELECT 'continuing' statement is run.

Here is another procedure. What do you think it will do? If we want to display the error error and still handling messages as part of the handler, after reaching the aha statement, and then continue with the continuing statement, will this achieve that?

CREATE procedure sp5()
BEGIN
DECLARE 'unknown column' CONDITION FOR SQLSTATE '42S22';
DECLARE CONTINUE HANDLER FOR 'unknown column'
SELECT 'error error whoop whoop';
SELECT 'still handling the error';
SELECT aha;
SELECT 'continuing';
END;
mysql> CALL sp5()\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
still handling the error: still handling the error
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
*************************** 1. row ***************************
error error whoop whoop: error error whoop whoop
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
*************************** 1. row ***************************
continuing: continuing
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

Figure 9-2

Figure 9-2. Positioning an element within its containing block

Note that the positioned element has padding, a double border, and a slightly different background color. In Figure 9-2, it has no margins, but if it did, they would create blank space between the borders and the offset edges. This would make the positioned element appear as though it did not completely fill the lower-right quarter of the containing block. In truth, it would do so, but this would not be immediately apparent to the eye. In other

The answer is clearly no. I hope that you were eagle-eyed enough to spot the misleading indentation. The SELECT 'still handling the error'; is actually part of the main procedure body, and not part of the error handler. Since we have no BEGIN or END statements as part of the handler, it consists of the one statement only. Here is what will achieve what we actually intended.

mysql>
CREATE procedure sp6()
BEGIN
DECLARE 'unknown column' CONDITION FOR SQLSTATE '42S22';
DECLARE CONTINUE HANDLER FOR 'unknown column'
BEGIN
SELECT 'error error whoop whoop';
SELECT 'still handling the error';
END;
SELECT aha;
SELECT 'continuing';
END;|
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
mysql> CALL sp6()\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
error error whoop whoop: error error whoop whoop
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
*************************** 1. row ***************************
still handling the error: still handling the error
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
*************************** 1. row ***************************
continuing: continuing
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

Just to round off our examples, here is an example of a procedure where the error handler is not called, and none of the handler statements are executed.

mysql>
CREATE procedure sp7()
BEGIN
DECLARE 'unknown column' CONDITION FOR SQLSTATE '42S22';
DECLARE CONTINUE HANDLER FOR 'unknown column'
BEGIN
SELECT 'error error whoop whoop';
SELECT 'still handling the error';
END;
SELECT 'continuing';
END;|
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
mysql> CALL sp7()\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
continuing: continuing
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

Variations and uses

For the examples above, we declared a condition to detect an SQLSTATE error. There are other ways. Firstly, handlers can be declared for specific error codes directly - you don't always need to go via an intermediate condition, although doing so is more useful in that the condition name can (and should) be descriptive, so there is no need to refer to a list of error codes at a later stage. The error code can also either be the SQLSTATE error number, as above, or the MySQL error code, as well as one of the more generic SQLWARNING, for all errors with an SQLSTATE beginning with 01, NOT FOUND for all errors with an SQLSTATE beginning with 02, or SQLEXCEPTION for all others. Below is a procedure that acts in a similar manner to our earlier examples. This time we use the MySQL Error code 1054, which is almost equivalent to SQLSTATE 42S22, and we also skip the condition:

mysql>
CREATE procedure sp8()
BEGIN
DECLARE EXIT HANDLER FOR 1054
BEGIN
SELECT 'error error whoop whoop';
SELECT 'still handling the error';
END;
SELECT aha;
END;|
mysql> CALL sp8()\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
error error whoop whoop: error error whoop whoop
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
*************************** 1. row ***************************
still handling the error: still handling the error
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

That's enough examples for now - hopefully you are starting to consider some practical uses for this. The handlers could ROLLBACK statements, or log to an error table. Moreover, the statements could be as complex as required, incorporating all the loops and conditions we looked at in the previous article.

max-height: 30em; max-width: 20em;

The question here, though, is what happens if the content of the element doesn't all fit into the specified element size. Does it get cut off at the boundaries, or does it spill outside the positioned element? That's what the next section will explore.

Should the content of DIV, and therefore a grandchild ofBODY, so it does not match the rule.

Child selectors must have at least two or more selectors separated bythe > symbol. It is possible to make a childselector part of a contextual selector as well:

DIV OL>LI EM {color: purple;}

This rule matches any EM text that is a descendantof a list item, as long as that list item is a child of ancause Navigator problems and put them into a style sheet that you then import. Since Navigator will refuse to import this style sheet, it won't have to deal with styles it can't deal with. This simple trick can save you a lot of headaches, but there is one drawback: a very few early versions of Navigator 4.x could crash when trying to process an @import statement. This was quickly fixed, and very few of these versions are still in use.

Figure 7-22

Figure 7-22. A single-line inline element with a left margin

Here, if we set values for the left or right margin, they will bevisible, as Figure 7-23 makes obvious:

B {margin-left: 10px; background: silver;}
Figure 7-23

Figure 7-23. An inline element with a left margin

Note the extra space between the end of the word just before theinline element, and the edge of the inline element'sbackground. This can end up on both ends of the inline if we wish: